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AutoGRACE®
Cylinder Liners

Our Flagship product supplied globally to the most demanding customers

Cylinder Liners, also known as engine sleeves, reborer sleeves, wet liners, dry sleeves or simply “liners” are a replaceable wear part which can be changed during engine overhaul service, thus avoiding replacement of the much more expensive engine block. Many modern light duty engines are manufactured by OEMs without any cylinder liners, with the piston running directly inside the block. Such engines may also be rebored during overhaul to a bigger diameter and then a dry liner, or “sleeve” inserted in the rebored block to bring it back to nominal size.

Product

Cylinder Liners are crucial to reduce the total cost of ownership of any engine, by lowering its overhaul time frame and servicing costs. Using a liner is always the better option than using an oversize piston and piston rings on a rebored engine. The additional pressures and loads generated by increasing the volume of the combustion chamber using the latter method results in a shorter overall life of the engine.

In addition to this the cylinder liners serves the following important purposes:

  1. Wear Part: It is designed to wear in a controlled manner to protect more expensive parts like pistons and engine block from wearing.
  2. Sealing: It provides a surface against which piston rings can slide with minimum possible friction and maximum sealing, to prevent combustion gases from escaping into the crankcase or lubricating oil from entering the combustion chamber.
  3. Heat Sink: Conducts heat due to combustion, away from the combustion chamber and into the coolant.

PRODUCT RANGE

Size Range of Piston in AutoGRACE® Brand

SPECIFICATION FROM TO
Outer Diameter (mm) 50.0 200.0
Inner Diameter (mm) 45.0 220.0
Length (mm) 40.0 350.0

APPLICATIONS

Garima Global supplies components for a wide variety of on-road, off-road, industrial and stationary applications such as: automotive (light duty) and light commercial, trucks (heavy duty), tractors (agricultural), earthmoving and construction machinery, generators, irrigation pumps, and defence / special purpose vehicles.

The brands for which we manufacture and export aftermarket products are Caterpillar, Chevrolet, Chrysler, Citroen, Cummins, Daewoo, DAF, Daihatsu, Detroit Diesel, Deutz, Fiat, Ford, Hino, Honda, Hyundai, International, Isuzu, Iveco, John Deere, Kamaz, Kia, Komatsu, Kubota, Land Rover, Leyland, Lister Petter, Lombardini, Mack, Mahindra, MAN, Massey Ferguson, Mazda, Mercedes Benz, Mitsubishi, Navistar, Nissan, Onan, Perkins, Peugeot, Renault, Scania, Suzuki, Tata, Tatra, Toyota, Ursus, UTB, Volvo, Yanmar and Zetor, amongst others.

Garima Global also export parts for air-brake compressors like Wabco, Bendix, Knorr, Cummins, Clayton Dewandre, Mercedes, Midland etc.

PRODUCT CATALOG

cylinder-liner-catalog

Garima Global has developed an extensive range of components for engine, braking, transmission, suspension, steering, chassis, electrical, lighting and other automotive sub-systems. To assist our customers with choosing the right product for their requirements we have published comprehensive catalogs with engine / vehicle models, interchange with references of OEMs and other popular aftermarket brands, fitment dimensions and other technical data. We strongly encourage you to contact us with your specific requirements so that we can email you the relevant catalogs, and we look forward to starting a mutually beneficial business relationship with you soon!

TYPES OF CYLINDER LINERS

Classified broadly into monolithic, inserted and bonded designs, the insert technology liners are by far the dominant design due to their ease of repair and lower costs to recondition the block. Within the insert technology cylinders, the main types are:

Design

WET LINERS

  • There are over 2000 different WET cylinder liners in range of AutoGRACE® Cylinder Liners
  • Usually used in medium and heavy duty applications
  • Are in direct contact with cooling fluid, hence called “WET”
  • Since collar is used to centre the liner within the block, superior cooling is achieved at the top end
  • AutoGRACE® Wet Liners are machined to extremely close tolerances on inner and outer diameters, eliminating misalignment and minimizing deformation. Roundness tester by Mitutoyo®, Japan is used to test roundness, concentricity, perpendicularity and other geometric parameters of the liner.
  • Sealing grooves are machined exactly as per OEM specifications to prevent leakage of cooling fluid into the block. Contracer equipment by Mitutoyo®, Japan is used to trace the profile of the groove under the collar and each sealing groove.
LEADING MANUFACTURERS OF WET CYLINDER LINERS, CHROME PLATED LINERS, PHOSHPATED LINERS IN INDIA
LEADING MANUFACTURERS OF DRY TYPE FULL-FINISHED SLEEVES AND STEEL CHROME CROMARD TYPE LINERS IN INDIA

Dry SLEEVES

  • AutoGRACE® brand has developed more than 5000 different sizes in Dry Sleeves
  • They are used for light and medium duty applications usually
  • Since they are pressed or shrink-fit into the block, they are not in direct contact with the cooling fluid, hence the term "DRY"
  • Dry liners are finished to an extremely smooth surface finish on the outer diameter to promote conduction of heat away from the cylinder and into the block
  • Available in both types: SF (semi-finished bore) and FF (fully finished bore)
  • In addition to standard sizes,AutoGRACE® sleeves are also available in any oversize / undersize as per customer requirements

Air-Cooled Liners

  • Used mostly in older medium and heavy duty engines
  • AutoGRACE® Air Cooled Liners are made from Shell Mould Casting process, giving high quality of finish to the cooling fins and outer profile of the liner
  • In addition to engine liners, air-brake compressor liners are also available in Air-Cooled design
LEADING MANUFACTURERS OF AIR-COOLED CYLINDER LINERS AND AIR-BRAKE COMPRESSOR LINERS IN INDIA

MATERIAL

GREY CAST IRON

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

GGPL manufactures cylinder liners in a wide variety of metallurgical compositions, depending on customer requirements, engine applications and other technical factors. Our customers can specify their proprietary compositions which GGPL is equipped to maintain consistently. GG25 is the standard grade used for most light and medium duty, as well as some heavy duty applications due to its economical cost, excellent wear resistance and oil retention properties. Below are examples of some of the material grades we manufacture.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

ELEMENTS GG25 GG25Cr Cu-Mo Based Bo Based
Carbon (%) 3.00-3.40 3.20-3.50 3.15-3.30 3.00-3.70
Silicon(%) 1.80-2.50 1.80-2.20 1.95-2.15 1.50-2.50
Manganese(%) 0.60-0.80 0.60-0.80 0.50-0.65 0.50-1.00
Sulphur(%) 0.00-0.12 0.00-0.12 0.03-0.10 0.00-0.12
Phosphorus(%) Min 0.35 0.65-0.90 0.00-0.10 0.10-0.50
Chromium(%) - 0.00-0.20 0.15-0.25 0.20-0.40
Copper(%) - - 0.50-0.60 0.00-0.25
Nickel(%) - - - -
Molybdenum (%) - - 0.17-0.25 0.00-0.25
Boron(%) - - - 0.05-0.06

Other grey cast iron grades like GG20, GG30 etc. are also available.

For enhanced strength and other material properties, AutoGRACE® liners are available in compositions using Chromium, Nickel, Copper, Boron, Molybdenum etc. as per customer requirements.

MICROSTRUCTURE
Liner Description

Carbon added to the molten metal forms flakes of graphite in the metal matrix during cooling down of the liner castings. The shape and size of these flakes can be changed by controlling the solidification process.

“Type A graphite flake (random orientation) is preferred because of its superiority in certain wear applications such as the cylinder liners.

Type B graphite flake (rosette pattern) is typical of fairly rapid cooling, such as moderately thin sections (about 10 m, or 38 in.) and along the surfaces of thicker sections, and sometimes results from poor inoculation.

The large flakes of type C graphite are typical of kish graphite that is formed in hypereutectic irons. These large flakes enhance resistance to thermal shock by increasing thermal conductivity and decreasing elastic modulus. On the other hand, large flakes are not conducive to good surface finishes on machined parts or to high strength or good impact resistance.”

Source: Nunes, Rafael, and Telmo Berta. ASM Metals Hand Book Volume 1 Properties and Selection Irons Steels and High Performance Alloys. The Materials Information Company

AutoGRACE® brand cylinder liners exhibit excellent microstructure properties as shown below. We have perfected foundry techniques to generate the right flake type and size. Specimen from each heat is tested for metallurgical composition, hardness and microstructure.

MICROSTRUCTURE
A + B Type Graphite Flakes Min 95%
Flake Size 4-6 microns
Free Ferrite Max 5%
Matrix Pearlite
HARDNESS & MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

In addition to metallurgical composition and microstructure, AutoGRACE® liners also confirm to below mechanical properties. Higher grades of cast iron can be requested by our customers as per their requirements.

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Hardness (BHN) 180-240
Tensile Strength (MPa) Min 250

MATERIAL DESIGNATION a

STEEL-CHROME

  • Where extremely thin wall thicknesses are required, steel liners with Chrome plating on bore are used
  • AutoGRACE® steel-chrome liners have wall thickness of 1 mm and higher, with hard chrome plating on bore
  • Available in both standard and oversizes
  • Fully finished bore – no machining required after fitment
  • Precisely plateau-honed bore provides optimum lubricant retention, long piston ring life and reduced emissions

No two markets are the same, hence AutoGRACE® liners have been developed in
sizes that match your market. We guarantee the fit and function of our Dry
Sleeves – because we have invested years of effort and experience in developing
the sizes that are appropriate for your reconditioning market

MANUFACTURING

INDUCTION MELTING

  • Induction Melting uses a rapidly changing magnetic field to uniformly heat and melt the charge
  • Garima Gobal uses Inductotherm furnaces - the world leader in this technology because only the best equipment can produce the best liners
  • Better for environment as it relies of electricity, rather than polluting fossil fuels, for energy
  • Eliminates possibility of contamination of molten metal by fuel particles
  • Exact control over temperature can be achieved throughout the melt cycle

CENTRIFUGAL CASTING

  • 100% of AutoGRACE® cylinder liners are centrifugally cast
  • Centrifugal Casting method uses centrifugal force to push contaminants and casting defects to the surface, from where they are machined away
  • Uniform cooling of the cast piece further enhance material properties of the final product

Induction Melting and Centrifugal Casting represent the mature of current foundry technology to manufacture cylinder liners with uniform chemical composition, hardness, microstructure and other material properties throughout the length and wall thickness of the liner.

CNC MACHINING

  • AutoGRACE® Cylinder Liners are machined on special purpose Vertical Turning Lathes (VTLs) and CNC turning centres to achieve close fitment tolerances and geometrical parameters.
  • Special work holding and tooling have been designed by Garima Global to address the challenge of achieving close tolerances in this thin walled component.

PRECISE FINISHING

Cincinnati® centreless grinding machines and plateau honing machines are used to control the geometry and surface finish of outer and inner surfaces of the liners within a very exacting range

Manufactured using the latest and best in foundry and machine shop technology, AutoGRACE® Cylinder Liners are Reliable, Durable and Better than the Competition.

Using CNC based SPMs and machines of highly reputed brands for final finishing operations,
AutoGRACE® Liners are machined to perfection – giving impeccable fit and function.

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