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AutoGRACE®
Piston Pins

Unbendable, Unbreakable, Uncompromising

Piston pins, also called gudgeon pins, or wrist pins, are used to link the small end of the connecting rod to the piston. They should be as strong and stiff as possible while being light to minimize inertial losses since they form a part of the reciprocating assembly.

Product

Piston pins serve following functions in an IC engine:

  1. RIGID CONNECTION: Marry the con rod to the piston. Rigidity is important to avoid loss of power due to flexure.
  2. FLEXIBLE JOINT: Allow relative angular movement between the con rod small end and piston, and
  3. POWER TRANSFER: Transfer the power generated by the engine from the piston to the connecting rod.

Due to the small relative motion between the pin and the conrod, as well as the pin and the piston, lubrication situation is not favourable. Hence following functionalities are essential.

  1. STRENGTH: To ensure operational safety. A failure of the pin will most certainly cause catastrophic damage to the engine.
  2. WEIGHT: To minimize reciprocating inertial losses of the system.
  3. SURFACE QUALITY, DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY: To optimize running efficiency in low lubrication conditions.
  4. HARDNESS: To prolong wear.

PRODUCT RANGE

Size Range of Piston Rings in AutoGRACE® Brand

SPECIFICATION FROM TO
Weight (kg) 0.30 3.00
Outer Diameter (mm) 5.00 50.00
Length (mm) 30.0 200.0

WRISTPIN SNAP RINGS

To lock the pins from moving laterally inside the piston, snap rings are fit into the groove in the boss of the piston. Usually they are manufactured from spring steel like DIN 73 126, but for small diameters, wound rings of round wire are also used. The two ends of the wires are bent inward to facilitate installation or outside to prevent rotation. If excessive axial loads are anticipated, outside snap rings may also be installed in grooves at both ends of the piston pin.

APPLICATIONS

Garima Global supplies components for a wide variety of on-road, off-road, industrial and stationary applications such as: automotive (light duty) and light commercial, trucks (heavy duty), tractors (agricultural), earthmoving and construction machinery, generators, irrigation pumps, and defence / special purpose vehicles.

The brands for which we manufacture and export aftermarket products are Caterpillar, Chevrolet, Chrysler, Citroen, Cummins, Daewoo, DAF, Daihatsu, Detroit Diesel, Deutz, Fiat, Ford, Hino, Honda, Hyundai, International, Isuzu, Iveco, John Deere, Kamaz, Kia, Komatsu, Kubota, Land Rover, Leyland, Lister Petter, Lombardini, Mack, Mahindra, MAN, Massey Ferguson, Mazda, Mercedes Benz, Mitsubishi, Navistar, Nissan, Onan, Perkins, Peugeot, Renault, Scania, Suzuki, Tata, Tatra, Toyota, Ursus, UTB, Volvo, Yanmar and Zetor, amongst others.

Garima Global also export parts for air-brake compressors like Wabco, Bendix, Knorr, Cummins, Clayton Dewandre, Mercedes, Midland etc.

PRODUCT CATALOG

Garima Global has developed an extensive range of components for engine, braking, transmission, suspension, steering, chassis, electrical, lighting and other automotive sub-systems. To assist our customers with choosing the right product for their requirements we have published comprehensive catalogs with engine / vehicle models, interchange with references of OEMs and other popular aftermarket brands, fitment dimensions and other technical data. We strongly encourage you to contact us with your specific requirements so that we can email you the relevant catalogs, and we look forward to starting a mutually beneficial business relationship with you soon!

TYPES OF PITSON PINS

Piston Pins may be categorized based on manufacturing process, applications, materials, plating / coatings etc. and AutoGRACE® brand has developed the complete range of wrist pins with leading manufacturers of pins in India.

DESIGN

HOLLOW PINS

To increase bending strength and reduce weight, most piston pins are designed to be hollow tubes. The inner diameter may have one or multiple steps built in to further enhance bending stiffness, reduce weight, or as a result of cold forging process.

SOLID PINS

For lighter engines like those of two-wheelers solid pins may be used.

MATERIAL

STEEL

Steel is the predominant material used in manufacture of piston pins. The important grades of steel are given in the table below. Nitrated steel alloy 31CrMoV9 is used for heavy duty applications.

ELEMENT 15Cr3
SAE 1552
SCM420
1.4027
17Cr3
EN 206
SAE 5015
1.7016
16MnCr5
SAE 5115
1.7131
EN32B
C14
SAE 1015
15CrMo
SAE 8620
SCM415
1.7262
21NiCrMo2
SAE8620
1.6523
31CrMoV9
1.8519
Carbon (%) 0.120-0.180 0.120-0.200 0.140-0.190 0.170-0.240 0.380-0.430 0.180-0.230 0.260-0.340
Silicon (%) 0.150-0.400 0.150-0.400 0.150-0.400 0.170-0.370 0.150-0.350 0.150-0.350 0.150-0.350
Manganese (%) 0.400-0.600 0.400-0.700 1.000-1.300 0.700-1.000 0.750-1.000 0.700-0.900 0.400-0.700
Phosphorus (%) 0.000-0.035 0.000-0.035 0.000-0.035 0.000-0.035 0.000-0.035 0.000-0.035 0.000-0.025
Sulphur (%) 0.000-0.035 0.000-0.035 0.000-0.035 0.000-0.035 0.000-0.040 0.000-0.035 0.000-0.025
Chromium (%) 0.400-0.700 0.400-0.900 0.800-1.100 0.000-0.250 0.800-1.100 0.400-0.600 2.300-2.700
Molybdenum (%) - - - - 0.50-0.250 0.150-0.250 0.150-0.250
Nickel (%) - - - 0.000-0.250 - 0.400-0.700 -
Copper (%) - - - 0.000-0.250 - - -
Vanadium (%) - - - - - - 0.100-0.200

MANUFACTURING

AutoGRACE® piston rings are manufactured by OEM and OES factories across India that adhere to the highest quality specifications.

COLD FORGING

To reduce machining stock, and where quantities are big, the central hole of the piston pin is created by cold forming or cold forging process. This increases production efficiency and reduces product cost substantially while giving superior shear strength and compressive strength.

Electroslag remelting process is used to make pins of very high material purity for racing applications.

MACHINING

Piston pins are usually manufactured from bar stock of standard steel grades procured from reputed steel mills. The bars are cut and then turned to extremely precise tolerances especially on outer diameter. Surface finish of the outer diameter is equally important to allow smooth sliding movement of the small end bush on the piston pin surface, which is achieved by centerless grinding or superfinishing operations like lapping. To make the pin last longer, outer diameter is also heat treated, carburized or induction hardened.

COATING

Specalized coatings like DLC on the outer surface increase the life of piston pins for demanding applications like racing.

TESTING

AutoGRACE® piston pins undergo stringent checks at our in-house lab before dispatch to our discerning customers globally on the following important parameters, among others.

SPECIFICATION FROM TO
Outer Diameter Tolerance (mm) -0.005 0.000
Outer Diameter Roundness (mm) 0.000 0.005
Outer Diameter Surface Finish (Ra) 0.1 0.2
Surface Hardness (HRC) 55 65
Hardening Case Depth (mm) 0.5 1.2
Core Strength (N/mm2) 700 1500
Young’s Modulus (N/mm2) 210,000 -
Heat Conductivity Index (W/m.K) 45.5 51.9
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